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Un Mundo Feliz de Aldous Huxley en pdf (Descarga gratuita) – Libros Gratis en Aldous Huxley - Un mundo feliz, PDF, Ficción que puede ser real - Decida. Contexto de Un Mundo Feliz de Aldous Haxley - Download as Word Doc .doc /. docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Download Aldous Huxley - Un Mundo Feliz DOWNLOAD PDF - KB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link.
As for the meaning of the facts, that of course depends upon the particular system of ideas, in terms of which you choose to interpret them. And these are not the only difficulties that confront the rational truth-seeker.
In public and in private life, it often happens that there is simply no time to collect the relevant facts or to weigh their significance. We are forced to act on insufficient evidence and by a light considerably less steady than that of logic. With the best will in the world, we cannot always be completely truthful or consistently rational. All that is in our power is to be as truthful and rational as circumstances permit us to be, and to respond as well as we can to the limited truth and imperfect reasonings offered for our consideration by others.
The people cannot be safe without information. Where the press is free, and every man able to read, all is safe. Jefferson, it is true, was a realist as well as an optimist. Used in one way, the press, the radio and the cinema are indispensable to the survival of democracy. Used in another way, they are among the most powerful weapons in the dictator's armory. In the field of mass communications as in almost every other field of enterprise, technological progress has hurt the Little Man and helped the Big Man.
As lately as fifty years ago, every democratic country could boast of a great number of small journals and local newspapers. Thousands of country editors expressed thousands of independent opinions.
Somewhere or other almost anybody could get almost anything printed. Today the press is still legally free; but most of the little papers have disappeared. The cost of wood-pulp, of modern printing machinery and of syndicated news is too high for the Little Man. In the totalitarian East there is political censorship, and the media of mass communication are controlled by the State. In the democratic West there is economic censorship and the media of mass communication are controlled by members of the Power Elite.
Censorship by rising costs and the concentration of communication power in the hands of a few big concerns is less objectionable than State ownership and government propaganda; but certainly it is not something of which a Jeffersonian democrat could possibly approve. In a word, they failed to take into account man's almost infinite appetite for distractions.
In the past most people never got a chance of fully satisfying this appetite. Through technical devices like the radio and the loud-speaker, eighty million people were deprived of independent thought. The totalitarian system in the period of modern technical development can dispense with such men; thanks to modern methods of communication, it is possible to mechanize the lower leadership.
As a result of this there has arisen the new type of the uncritical recipient of orders. Moreover, they had been genetically standardized and postnatally conditioned to perform their subordinate functions, and could therefore be depended upon to behave almost as predictably as machines. As we shall see in a later chapter, this conditioning of "the lower leadership" is already going on under the Communist dictatorships.
The Chinese and the Russians are not relying merely on the indirect effects of advancing technology; they are working directly on the psycho-physical organisms of their lower leaders, subjecting minds and bodies to a system of ruthless and, from all accounts, highly effective conditioning. That nightmare was almost realized in Hitler's totalitarian system.
This, it may be, is one of the reasons why they failed. Nor is it only on the technical front that the hand of the would-be dictator has been strengthened.
In the past these specialists in the art of changing people's minds were empiricists. Today the art of mind-control is in the process of becoming a science. The practitioners of this science know what they are doing and why.
They are guided in their work by theories and hypotheses solidly established on a massive foundation of experimental evidence. And what was the theory of human nature upon which those terrifyingly successful methods were based?
These questions can be answered, for the most part, in Hitler's own words. And what remarkably clear and astute words they are!
When he writes about such vast abstractions as Race and History and Providence, Hitler is strictly unreadable. But when he writes about the German masses and the methods he used for dominating and directing them, his style changes.
Nonsense gives place to sense, bombast to a hard-boiled and cynical lucidity. In his philosophical lucubrations Hitler was either cloudily daydreaming or reproducing other people's half-baked notions.
In the words of his ablest biographer, Mr. Alan Bullock, "Hitler was the greatest demagogue in history. As he himself said, "To be a leader means to be able to move the masses. Let us see what Hitler thought of the masses he moved and how he did the moving. The first principle from which he started was a value judgment: the masses are utterly contemptible. They are incapable of abstract thinking and uninterested in any fact outside the circle of their immediate experience.
It is in these drives and feelings that "the roots of their positive as well as their negative attitudes are implanted. Whoever wishes to win over the masses must know the key that will open the door of their hearts. Hitler made his strongest appeal to those members of the lower middle classes who had been ruined by the inflation of , and then ruined all over again by the depression of and the following years. A man or woman makes direct contact with society in two ways: as a member of some familial, professional or religious group, or as a member of a crowd.
Groups are capable of being as moral and intelligent as the individuals who form them; a crowd is chaotic, has no purpose of its own and is capable of anything except intelligent action and realistic thinking. Assembled in a crowd, people lose their powers of reasoning and their capacity for moral choice.
Their suggestibility is increased to the point where they cease to have any judgment or will of their own. In a word, a man in a crowd behaves as though he had swallowed a large dose of some powerful intoxicant.
He is a victim of what I have called "herd-poisoning. During his long career as an agitator, Hitler had studied the effects of herd-poison and had learned how to exploit them for his own purposes.
Reading is a private, not a collective activity. The orator speaks to masses of individuals, already well primed with herd-poison.
They are at his mercy and, if he knows his business, he can do what he likes with them. He was able, in his own words, "to follow the lead of the great mass in such a way that from the living emotion of his hearers the apt word which he needed would be suggested to him and in its turn this would go straight to the heart of his hearers.
Among the masses "instinct is supreme, and from instinct comes faith. With them one cannot make history; they cannot be used as elements composing a community. Propaganda, on the other hand, teaches us to accept as self-evident matters about which it would be reasonable to suspend our judgment or to feel doubt. The aim of the demagogue is to create social coherence under his own leadership.
All his statements are made without qualification. There are no grays in his picture of the world; everything is either diabolically black or celestially white. The morally squeamish intellectual may be shocked by this kind of thing.
But the masses are always convinced that "right is on the side of the active aggressor. It was a very low opinion. So do sin and stupidity. In all the world's higher religions, salvation and enlightenment are for individuals.
The kingdom of heaven is within the mind of a person, not within the collective mindlessness of a crowd. He did not say anything about being present where thousands are intoxicating one another with herd-poison. Under the Nazis enormous numbers of people were compelled to spend an enormous amount of time marching in serried ranks from point A to point B and back again to point A.
Only much later," adds Hermann Rauschning, "was there revealed in it a subtle intention based on a well-judged adjustment of ends and means. Marching diverts men's thoughts. Marching kills thought. Marching makes an end of individuality.
Marching is the indispensable magic stroke performed in order to accustom the people to a mechanical, quasi-ritualistic activity until it becomes second nature. This is a question that can still be asked and perhaps effectively answered. The Arts of Selling The survival of democracy depends on the ability of large numbers of people to make realistic choices in the light of adequate information.
All this is greatly to the good. But unfortunately propaganda in the Western democracies, above all in America, has two faces and a divided personality.
In charge of the editorial department there is often a democratic Dr. In charge of advertising we find an anti-democratic, because anti-rational, Mr. Hyde -- or rather a Dr.
Hyde, for Hyde is now a Ph. This Dr. Hyde would be very unhappy indeed if everybody always lived up to John Dewey's faith in human nature. Truth and reason are Jekyll's affair, not his. Hyde is a motivation analyst, and his business is to study human weaknesses and failings, to investigate those unconscious desires and fears by which so much of men's conscious thinking and overt doing is determined.
But the indispensable is not necessarily the desirable. What is demonstrably good in the sphere of economics may be far from good for men and women as voters or even as human beings. Today we read a book like Mr. Vance Packard's The Hidden Persuaders, and are more amused than horrified, more resigned than indignant. But what, we may ask, is the sort of thing that is to be expected in the future?
Are Hyde's activities compatible in the long run with Jekyll's? It is more difficult inasmuch as the commercial propagandist is not permitted, by the rules of his particular game, to appeal to the more savage instincts of his public.
This sort of thing, however, is ruled out, and he must be content with a milder approach. But the mild approach is less exciting than the approach through verbal or physical violence. In the long run, anger and hatred are self-defeating emotions. But in the short run they pay high dividends in the form of psychological and even since they release large quantities of adrenalin and noradrenalin physiological satisfaction. He would yell, he would scream, his veins would swell, his face would turn purple.
Strong emotion as every actor and dramatist knows is in the highest degree contagious. Infected by the malignant frenzy of the orator, the audience would groan and sob and scream in an orgy of uninhibited passion. Almost all of us long for peace and freedom; but very few of us have much enthusiasm for the thoughts, feelings and actions that make for peace and freedom.
These thoughts, feelings and actions are too dangerous to be exploited for commercial purposes. Irrational propaganda depends for its effectiveness on a general failure to understand the nature of symbols. Simple-minded people tend to equate the symbol with what it stands for, to attribute to things and events some of the qualities expressed by the words in terms of which the propagandist has chosen, for his own purposes, to talk about them.
Consider a simple example. This emulsion has many valuable properties: it penetrates the skin, it does not become rancid, it is mildly antiseptic and so forth. Preventing suicide: A global imperative. Ginebra: World Health Organization.
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